Epoch vs Batch Size vs Iterations

You must have had those times when you were looking at the screen and scratching your head wondering “Why I am typing these three terms in my code and what is the difference between them ” because they all look so similar.

Epoch vs batch size vs iterations

To find out the difference between these terms you need to know some of the machine learning terms like Gradient Descent to help you better understand. Here is a short summary on Gradient Descent

Gradient Descent

It is an iterative optimization algorithm used in machine learning to find the best results (minima of a curve).

Gradient means the rate of inclination or declination of a slope.

Descent means the instance of descending.

The algorithm is iterative means that we need to get the results multiple times to get the most optimal result. The iterative quality of the gradient descent helps a under-fitted graph to make the graph fit optimally to the data.

Gradient Descent

The Gradient descent has a parameter called learning rate. As you can see above (left), initially the steps are bigger that means the learning rate is higher and as the point goes down the learning rate becomes more smaller by the shorter size of steps. Also, the Cost Function is decreasing or the cost is decreasing .Sometimes you might see people saying that the Loss Function is decreasing or the loss is decreasing, both Cost and Loss represent same thing (btw it is a good thing that our loss/cost is decreasing).

We need terminologies like epochs, batch size, iterations only when the data is too big which happens all the time in machine learning and we can’t pass all the data to the computer at once. So, to overcome this problem we need to divide the data into smaller sizes and give it to our computer one by one and update the weights of the neural networks at the end of every step to fit it to the data given.


One Epoch is when an ENTIRE dataset is passed forward and backward through the neural network only ONCE.

Since one epoch is too big to feed to the computer at once we divide it in several smaller batches.

Why we use more than one Epoch?

I know it doesn’t make sense in the starting that — passing the entire dataset through a neural network is not enough. And we need to pass the full dataset multiple times to the same neural network. But keep in mind that we are using a limited dataset and to optimise the learning and the graph we are using Gradient Descent which is an iterative process. So, updating the weights with single pass or one epoch is not enough.

One epoch leads to underfitting of the curve in the graph (below).

Overfitting vs underfitting

As the number of epochs increases, more number of times the weight are changed in the neural network and the curve goes from underfitting to optimal to overfitting curve.

So, what is the right numbers of epochs?

Unfortunately, there is no right answer to this question. The answer is different for different datasets but you can say that the numbers of epochs is related to how diverse your data is… just an example - Do you have only black cats in your dataset or is it much more diverse dataset?

Batch Size

Total number of training examples present in a single batch.

Note: Batch size and number of batches are two different things.

But What is a Batch?

As I said, you can’t pass the entire dataset into the neural net at once. So, you divide dataset into Number of Batches or sets or parts.

Just like you divide a big article into multiple sets/batches/parts like Introduction, Gradient descent, Epoch, Batch size and Iterations which makes it easy to read the entire article for the reader and understand it.


To get the iterations you just need to know multiplication tables or have a calculator.

Iterations is the number of batches needed to complete one epoch.

Note: The number of batches is equal to number of iterations for one epoch.

Let’s say we have 2000 training examples that we are going to use .

We can divide the dataset of 2000 examples into batches of 500 then it will take 4 iterations to complete 1 epoch.

Where Batch Size is 500 and Iterations is 4, for 1 complete epoch.